고수 (불교)

불교 22
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고수(苦受, 산스크리트어: duḥkha-vedanā 두카 베다나-, 팔리어: dukkhā-vedanā 둑카- 웨-다나-, 영어: unpleasant feeling)[1]는 괴로운 느낌으로, 전통적인 표현으로는 불열(不悅)의 수(受)라 하는데, 대략적으로 말하자면, 마음(6식 또는 8식, 즉 심왕, 즉 심법)이 대상으로부터 괴로움(핍박, 스트레스)을 느끼는 것이다.[2][3]

다음의 분류 또는 체계에 속한다.

  • 고수 · 낙수 · 불고불락수3수(三受) 중 하나이다.
    • 이 경우, 고수는 신수 · 심수의 2수(二受) 중 신수(身受, 감각적 느낌, 신체적 느낌)에도 속하고 심수(心受, 정신적 느낌)에도 속한다.
  • 고수 · 낙수 · 우수 · 희수 · 사수의 5수(五受) 중 하나이다.
    • 이 경우, 고수는 신수 · 심수의 2수(二受) 중 신수(身受, 감각적 느낌, 신체적 느낌)에만 속한다.

3수 중 고수를 신체적 괴로운 느낌과 정신적 괴로운 느낌으로 세분하여 각각 5수의 고수(괴로운 느낌)와 우수(슬픈 느낌)가 된다. 또한 3수 중 낙수를 신체적 즐거운 느낌과 정신적 즐거운 느낌으로 세분하여 각각 5수의 낙수(즐거운 느낌)와 희수(기쁜 느낌)가 된다.

신체적으로 괴로운 느낌이란 통증을 말한다. 예를 들어, 바늘에 찔리거나 병에 걸려 아픈 것을 말한다. 정신적으로 괴로운 느낌이란, 예를 들어, 사랑하는 사람이 여윈 모습을 보고 걱정이 되거나 마음이 아픈 것을 말한다.

정의

세친의 《대승오온론》 등에 따르면, 고수(괴로운 느낌)의 정의는 어떤 대상을 만났을 때 헤어지고 싶어하는 느낌이다. 즉, 만나고 싶어하지 않는 느낌이다. 달리 말하여, 고수(괴로운 느낌)는 마음에 들지 않는[不可意] 대상을 만났을 때 가지게 되는 느낌이다. 그리고 불교에 따르면, 마음에 드는 대상 또는 마음에 들지 않는 대상을 만나는 것은 인과법칙 즉 과 업의 과보의 법칙 즉 연기법에 따른 것으로, 과거에 몸과 말과 뜻으로 지은 불선한(해로운) 행위로 인해 불선한(해로운) 업이 쌓이고 이 업으로 인해 마음에 들지 않는 대상과 만나게 된다.[4]

엄밀한 정의

대략적으로 말하자면, 괴로운 느낌이란 마음이 대상으로부터 괴로움을 느끼는 것이라고 말할 수 있지만, 엄밀히 말하자면, 마음이 괴로운 느낌을 느끼는 것이 아니라 마음이라는 별개의 개체[法]가 괴로운 느낌이라는 별개의 개체함께한 것, 즉, 두 개의 별개의 개체가 상응한 것이다. 불교 교의에 따르면, 무언가를 느끼는 것은, 느낌[受] 그 자체가 느낄[受] 뿐 따로 소유자가 있어 느끼는 것이 아니다.[5] 그리고 이 느낌을 마음이 알아차림으로써, 즉, 이 느낌과 마음이 함께함으로써 느낌의 인식작용이 완성된다.[6][7]

달리 말해, 인간은 색온 · 수온 · 상온 · 행온 · 식온의 5온으로 이루어져 있는데 색온(감각기관, 근)과 수온(느낌, 마음작용, 마음부수)과 식온(마음, 식)이 인식대상(경)과 화합할 때를, 즉, 4가지 조건 또는 인연이 만났을 때를 세간적인 표현 즉 엄밀한 표현이 아닌 일반적인 통용 표현으로 '무엇(인식대상)을 느낀다(색온+수온+식온)'고 말하는 것일 뿐이다.

정리하자먼, 괴로운 느낌이란 과거 불선한(해로운) 업의 과보로서 마음에 들지 않는 대상을 만나 저절로 일어나는 느낌이다. 그리고 괴로운 느낌은 괴로운 경험 속에서만 존재하는데, 괴로운 경험이란 ① 마음에 들지 않는 대상(경)과 ② 그 대상과 만나게 된 몸(색온)과 ③ 그 대상을 만나 저절로 일어난 괴로운 느낌(수온)과 ④ 그 괴로운 느낌에 대한 앎(식온)이 화합하고 있는 현상이다.

신체적인 괴로움과 정신적인 괴로움

불교에 따르면, 모든 마음은 반드시 느낌[受]을 동반한다.(참고: 변행심소, 대지법)[8][9] 즉, 크게 느낌을 세 가지로 구분할 때의 고수(괴로운 느낌) · 낙수(즐거운 느낌) · 불고불락수(괴롭지도 즐겁지도 않은 느낌, 무덤덤한 느낌, 그저 그런 느낌)의 3수(三受) 중 어느 하나와 반드시 상응한다. 또는, 3수를 더 세분한 고수(신체적으로 괴로운 느낌) · 낙수(신체적으로 즐거운 느낌) · 희수(정신적으로 즐거운 느낌) · 우수(정신적으로 괴로운 느낌) · 사수(정신적으로 괴롭지도 즐겁지도 않은 느낌, 나아가 고급한 형태의 균형의 느낌)의 5수(五受) 중 어느 하나와 반드시 상응한다.[10]

3수의 고수를 5수의 고수와 우수로 세분한 이유는 다음과 같다. 과거의 업이 해로운(불선) 업일 때, 마음에 들지 않는 대상 즉 괴로운 대상과 만나게 된다. 이 때 전5식신식은 다른 네 가지 안식 · 이식 · 비식 · 설식평온괴롭지도 즐겁지도 않은 느낌 즉 사수와 함께하는 것과는 달리 신체적인 고통의 느낌과 함께한다. 즉 통증을 느낀다.(참고: 해로운 과보의 마음) 말하자면, 눈(안근)의 통증이란 눈(안근)이 느끼는 통증이 아니라 몸(신근)이 느끼는 통증이다. 그렇기 때문에 괴로운 대상과 만났을 때 안식 · 이식 · 비식 · 설식과 함께하는 괴로움은 신체적인 것이 아니라 정신적인 것이다. 예를 들어, 만나기 싫은 사람을 보게 되어 괴로운 느낌(피하고 싶은 느낌)이 들었을 때, 봄(안식)은 신체적인 것 즉 감각적인 것이지만 이 봄(안식)과 함께 일어나는 괴로움은 정신적인 것이다. 즉, 고수가 아니라 우수이다. 전통적으로, 고수 즉 신체적인 괴로움을 '괴로움'(팔리어: dukkha 둑카, 영어: pain)이라고 이름하고 우수 즉 정신적인 괴로움을 '슬픔'(팔리어: domanassa 도-마낫사, 영어: displeasure)이라고 이름한다.[11][12]

그리고 6식 중 제6의식은 그 자체가 순전히 정신적인 것이므로 제6의식과 함께하는 괴로움도 정신적인 것이다. 즉, 고수가 아니라 우수이다.

같이 보기

각주

  1. Bhikkhu Bodhi & Allan R. Bomhard (2007). 《A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma》. Charleston Buddhist Fellowship. p.68.
    (2) Feeling (vedanā): Feeling is the mental factor that feels the object: it is the affective mode in which the object is experienced. The Pāḷi word vedanā does not signify “emotion” (which appears to be a complex phenomenon involving a variety of concomitant mental factors), but the bare affective quality of an experience, which may be either pleasant (sukhā-vedanā), unpleasant (dukkhā-vedanā), or neutral (adukkha-masukhā-vedanā). Feeling is said to have the characteristic of being felt (vedayita). Its function is experiencing, or its function is to enjoy the desirable aspect of the object. Its manifestation is the relishing of the associated mental factors. Its proximate cause is tranquility.49 Whereas the other mental factors experience the object only derivatively, feeling experiences it directly and fully. In this respect, the other factors are compared to a cook who prepares a dish for a king and only samples the food while preparing it, while feeling is compared to the king who enjoys the meal as much as he likes.
    49 So say the Commentaries. But it seems that tranquility as proximate cause applies solely to the pleasant feeling when developing concentration. A more general proximate cause for feeling would be contact, in accordance with the principle “with contact as condition, feeling comes to be” (phassapaccayā vedanā). In fact, the entire treatment of feeling here is limited to a particular kind of feeling. For a fuller treatment of feeling in all its variety, see Chapter 3, §§2—4, and Guide.
  2. "苦受" , 星雲. 《佛光大辭典》(불광대사전) 3판:
    苦受
    梵語 duḥkha-vedanā。三受之一,五受之一。受者,領納外境之義。境有順、違、俱非三境,故受有苦、樂、捨三受。逼迫身心,領納違情之境而起苦惱之感者,稱為苦受。其為三受之一者,係指於身心所領納的逼迫不悅之感受;其為五受之一者,僅指於身所領納的逼迫不悅之感受。〔成唯識論卷九、四念處卷一〕(參閱「三受」764、「五受」1456)p4978
  3. "三受(삼수):" , 운허. 《불교사전》:
    三受(삼수):
    세 가지 감각. 고수(苦受)ㆍ낙수(樂受)ㆍ사수(捨受). (1) 고수. 외계(外界)의 접촉에 의하여 몸과 마음에 받는 괴로운 감각. (2) 낙수. 바깥 경계와 접촉하여 즐거움을 느끼는 감각. (3) 사수. 고수와 낙수에 속하지 않은 감각. 곧 괴롭지도 즐겁지도 않은 느낌. 수(受)는 바깥 경계를 받아 들인다는 뜻. ⇒수(受)
  4. Bhikkhu Bodhi & Allan R. Bomhard (2007). 《A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma》. Charleston Buddhist Fellowship. pp.35~36.
    Wholesome-resultant rootless consciousness (kusalavipāka-ahetukacittāni):
    The eight types of consciousness in this category are results of wholesome kamma. In the designation of the previous class, the word ahetuka, “rootless,” was not included because all unwholesome-resultants are rootless; there are no unwholesome-resultants that are accompanied by roots. However, as will be seen later, wholesome-resultants can be accompanied by roots, namely, by beautiful roots that are karmically indeterminate (abyākata). To distinguish the wholesome-resultants that are rootless from those with roots, the word ahetuka is included in their class designation.
    Seven of these types of consciousness correspond to the unwholesome-resultants. But, whereas the unwholesome-resultants arise in regard to an undesirable object, the wholesome-resultants arise in regard to an object that is desirable (iṭṭha) or extremely desirable (ati-iṭṭha). The first four sense consciousnesses here, like their counterparts, are associated with equanimity, that is, neutral feeling; but since the impact of the object on the body is strong, the feeling associated with wholesome-resultant body-consciousness is that of bodily pleasure (sukha).
    The rootless wholesome-resultants include one type of consciousness without a counterpart among the unwholesome-resultants. This is the investigating consciousness accompanied by joy (somanassa). Whereas the investigating consciousness resulting from unwholesome kamma is always accompanied by neutral feeling, that resulting from wholesome kamma is twofold: one accompanied by neutral feeling arisen in regard to a moderately desirable object, and one accompanied by joy, which arises when the object is especially desirable. Thus, there are eight types of consciousness in this class, in contrast to the seven types found in the former class.
  5. (한국어) 각묵스님 옮김(2015) 《디가 니까야》 제2권 제22경 〈대념처경〉 초기불전연구원. pp.510~511.
    II. 느낌의 관찰[受隨觀]
    11. "비구들이여, 어떻게 비구가 느낌에서 느낌을 관찰하며[受隨觀] 머무는가?555) 비구들이여, 여기 비구는 즐거운 느낌556)을 느끼면서 즐거운 느낌을 느낀다.'고 꿰뚫어 안다.557) 괴로운 느낌을 느끼면서 '괴로운 느낌을 느낀다.'고 꿰뚫어 안다. 괴롭지도 즐겁지도 않은 느낌을 느끼면서 '괴롭지도 즐겁지도 않은 느낌을 느낀다.'고 꿰뚫어 안다.
    555) "이처럼 세존께서는 물질의 명상주제를 설하신 뒤 이제 정신의 명상주제를 설하시면서 「제석문경」(D21)의 주석에서처럼 느낌으로 정신적인 명상주제를 설하신다. 왜냐하면 감각접촉이나 마음으로 그것을 설하게 되면 [명상주제가] 분명해지지 않는 것이 마치 암흑과도 같기 때문이다. 그러나 느낌들의 일어남은 아주 분명하기 때문에 느낌으로 설하면 [명상주제가] 분명해지기 때문이다. 거기서 '두 가지 명상주제가 있나니 물질적인 명상주제와 정신적인 명상주제이다.'라는 등의 설명은 「제석문경」에서 주석한 방법대로 알아야 한다."(DA.iii.774)
    556) "여기서 즐거운 느낌을(sukhaṁ vedanaṁ)이라는 것은 육체적이거나 정신적인 즐거운 느낌을 느끼면서 '즐거운 느낌을 느낀다.'고 꿰뚫어 안다는 뜻이다."(DA.iii.773)
    557) "여기서 '누가 느끼는가?' 一 어떤 중생이나 사람이 느끼는 것이 아니다. '느낌은 누구에게 속하는가?' 一 느낌은 어떤 중생이나 사람에게 속하는 것이 아니다.
    '무슨 작용으로 느끼는가?' 一 [형상, 소리 등의] 토대(境)를 대상(vatthu-ārammaṇa)으로 하여 느낌이 있다. 그러므로 그는 이와 같이 꿰뚫어 안다. '이런저런 즐거운 토대 등을 대상으로 삼아 오직 느낌이 느낄 뿐이다(vedanāva vedayati). 그런 느낌의 일어남을 가져 나는 느낀다고 하는 단지 일상적인 어법(vohāra)이 있을 뿐이다.'라고. 이와 같이 감각토대를 대상으로 하여 느낌이 느낀다고 숙고하면서 '즐거운 느낌을 느낀다고 꿰뚫어 안다.'고 알아야 한다."(Ibid)
  6. Bhikkhu Bodhi & Allan R. Bomhard (2007). 《A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma》. Charleston Buddhist Fellowship. p.37~38.
    Five-sense-door adverting consciousness (pañcadvārāvajjanacitta): When an external sense object impinges on one of the five physical sense organs, before the appropriate sense consciousness can arise — for example, eye-consciousness seeing a form —, another consciousness must have arisen first. This consciousness is the fivesense- door adverting consciousness (pañcadvārāvajjanacitta), which has the function of adverting (āvajjana)31 to whatever object is presenting itself at one of the five sense doors (dvāra). This consciousness does not see, hear, smell, taste, or touch the object. It simply turns to the object, thereby enabling the sense consciousness to arise in immediate succession.32
    31 This is the turning of the mind towards an object. Āvajjana forms the first stage in the process of consciousness. When an object of the five physical senses is involved, it is called “five-sense-door adverting consciousness” (pañcadvārāvajjanacitta); in the case of a mental object, “mind-door adverting consciousness” (manodvārāvajjanacitta). Cf, Nyanatiloka, Buddhist Dictionary: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines (fourth revised edition [1980]), pp. 30—31.
    32 A single unit of sense perception (for example, visual consciousness), being conditioned through a sense organ and its corresponding object, forms in reality an extremely complex process, in which all the single phases of consciousness follow one another in rapid succession, performing their respective functions, for example:
    “As soon as a visible object has entered the range of vision, it acts on the sensitive eye-organ (cakkhu-pasāda), and, conditioned thereby, an excitation of the subconscious stream (bhavanga-sota) takes place.
    “As soon, however, as subconsciousness is broken off, the functional mind element, grasping the object and breaking through the subconscious stream, performs the function of ‘adverting’ (āvajjana) the mind towards the object.
    “Immediately thereupon, there arises at the eye-door, and based upon the sensitive eye-organ, the eye-consciousness, while performing the function of ‘seeing’ (dassana)…
    “Immediately thereafter, there arises the mind-element, performing the function of ‘receiving’ (sampaṭicchana) the object of that consciousness…
    “Immediately thereafter, there arises…the mind-consciousness element, while ‘investigating’ (santīraṇa) the object received by the mind-element…
    “Immediately thereafter, there arises the functional, rootless mind-consciousness-element, accompanied by indifference, while performing the function of ‘determining’ (votthapana) the object…
    “Now, if the object is large, then immediately afterwards there flash forth six or seven ‘impulsive moments’ (javana-citta), constituted by one of the eight wholesome (kusala) or twelve unwholesome (akusala) or nine functional (kiriya or kriyā) classes of consciousness.
    “Now, if, at the end of the impulsive moments, the object at the five-sense doors is very large and at the mind-door clear, then there arises, once or twice, one of the eight root-accompanied kamma-resultant classes of consciousness of the sense-sphere, or one of the three rootless kamma-resultant mindconsciousness- elements… Because this consciousness, after the vanishing of the impulsive moments, possesses the faculty continuing with the object of the subconsciousness, taking the object of the subconsciousness as its own object, thereby, it is called ‘registering’ (tadārammaṇa, literally, ‘that object’ or ‘having that as object’).” (Visuddhimagga XIV, 115ff.)
    If, however, the sense-object is weak, then it reaches merely the stage of “impulsion” (javana), or of “determining” (votthapana); if very weak, only an excitation of the subconsciousness takes place.
    The process of the inner, or mind, consciousness, that is, without participation of the five physical senses, is as follows: in the case that the mind-object entering the mind-door is distinct, then it passes through the stages of “adverting at the mind-door” (manodvārāvajjana), “the impulsive stage,” and “the registering stage,” before finally sinking into the subconscious stream. Cf, Nyanatiloka, Buddhist Dictionary: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines (fourth revised edition [1980]), pp. 227—228.
  7. Mehm Tin Mon (2015). 《The Essence of Buddha Abhidhamma》. Third edition. Mehm Tay Zar Mon, Mya Mon Yadanar Literature. pp.37~38.
    IMMORAL RESULTANT CONSCIOUSNESS (Akusala Vipāka Citta)
    The seven akusala vipāka cittas are given the following symbols and names.
    cakkhu      ghāna       kāya        santī
       —    —     —     —     ^     —     —
           sota       jivhā       sampa


    1 Upekkhā-sahagataṁ cakkhuviññāṇaṁ
     eye-consciousness accompanied by neutral feeling.
    2 Upekkhā-sahagataṁ sotaviññāṇaṁ
     ear-consciousness accompanied by neutral feeling.
    3 Upekkhā-sahagataṁ ghānaviññāṇaṁ
     nose-consciousness accompanied by neutral feeling.
    4 Upekkhā-sahagataṁ jivhāviññāṇaṁ
     tongue-consciousness accompanied by neutral feeling.
    5 Dukkha-sahagataṁ kāyaviññāṇaṁ
     body-consciousness accompanied by painful feeling.
    6 Upekkhā-sahagataṁ sampaṭicchana-cittaṁ
     receiving consciousness accompanied by neutral feeling.
    7 Upekkhā-sahagataṁ santīraṇa-cittaṁ
     investigating-consciousness accompanied by indifference.

    Of the seven cittas mentioned above, the first five are known as pañca-viññāna, i.e., five cittas that are conscious of the five senses. The last two, i.e., sampaṭicchana-citta and santīraṇa-citta, represent two connecting stages in the process of cognition (awareness of an object).
    For example, when a visible object appears in the eye, a series of consciousness has to arise and perish in order to see the object. First pañca-dvārāvajjana (five-door directing consciousness) directs the consciousness stream towards the object. Then cakkhu-viññāṇa (eye consciousness) sees the object and transmits it to the next consciousness.
    Then sampaṭicchana (receiving consciousness) receives the sense object. Then santīraṇa (investigating consciousness) investigates the sense object. Then mano-dvārāvajjana (mind-door directing consciousness) determines the sense object whether it is good or bad. We are aware of the sense object roughly at this stage.
    Similarly, when an audible voice strikes the eardrum, a series of consciousness, i.e., pañca-dvārāvajjana, sotaviññāṇa, sampaṭichana, santīraṇa, mano-dvārāvajjana, etc., has to arise and perish before we can hear the voice.
    Thus sampaṭicchana-citta, santīraṇa citta together with pañca dvārāvajjana citta and mano-dvārāvajjana citta are essential for cognition of the senses at the five sense-doors (eye, ear, nose, tongue and body).

  8. Bhikkhu Bodhi & Allan R. Bomhard (2007). 《A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma》. Charleston Buddhist Fellowship. p.35.
    Accompanied by joy (somanassasahagata): The word somanassa, “joy,” is derived from su- = “pleasant” + manas- = “mind;” thus, it means, literally, a pleasant mental state. Somanassa is a type of feeling, specifically, pleasant mental feeling. All consciousness is accompanied by some feeling, which may be physical or mental, pleasant, painful, or neutral. Somanassa is a feeling that is mental rather than physical (bodily), and pleasant rather than painful or neutral. This feeling “accompanies” (sahagata) this type of consciousness in that it is inextricably blended with it, just as when the waters of two rivers meet, they blend together and cannot be distinguished. The Abhidhamma describes four cittas rooted in greed (lobha) and accompanied by a joyful mental feeling (somanassa). The other four cittas in this class are accompanied by equanimity (upekkhāsahagata). The word upekkhā is often used in the Pāḷi texts to signify the lofty spiritual quality of equanimity, or impartiality, the state of mind that cannot be swayed by biases and preferences. Here, however, the word is used simply to mean neutral feeling, a mental feeling that leans neither towards gladness nor sadness. In contrast to pleasant and painful feelings, which experience an object in diametrically opposed ways, upekkhā experiences the object in a neutral manner. Thus, upekkhā, or “equanimous feeling”, is also called “adukkhamasukhā vedanā,” “neither-painful- nor-pleasant feeling.”
  9. Bhikkhu Bodhi & Allan R. Bomhard (2007). 《A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma》. Charleston Buddhist Fellowship. p.100.
    Analysis of feeling: As we have seen, feeling (vedanā) is a universal mental factor, the cetasika with the function of experiencing the “flavor” of the object. Since some sort of feeling accompanies every citta, feeling serves as an important variable in terms of which consciousness can be classified. In this section, the author’s main concern is to classify the totality of cittas by way of their concomitant feeling.
  10. Bhikkhu Bodhi & Allan R. Bomhard (2007). 《A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma》. Charleston Buddhist Fellowship. p.100.
    Three kinds of feeling: Feeling may be analyzed as either threefold or fivefold. When it is analyzed simply in terms of its attractive quality, it is threefold: pleasant, painful, and neither pleasant nor painful. In this threefold classification, pleasant feeling includes both bodily pleasure and mental pleasure, or joy, and painful feeling includes both bodily pain and mental pain, or displeasure.
  11. Bhikkhu Bodhi & Allan R. Bomhard (2007). 《A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma》. Charleston Buddhist Fellowship. p.31.
    Accompanied by equanimity (upekkhāsahagata): Even if a desirable object is present when a delusion-rooted consciousness arises, it is not experienced as desirable and thus pleasant mental feeling (somanassa) does not arise. Similarly, an undesirable object is not experienced as such, and thus unpleasant mental feeling (domanassa) does not arise. Moreover, when the mind is obsessed by doubt (vicikicchā) or restlessness (uddhacca), it is not capable of forming a determinate positive or negative evaluation of the object, and thus cannot be associated with either pleasant or painful feeling. For these reasons, the feeling that accompanies these two cittas is neutral, the feeling of equanimity (upekkhā).
  12. Bhikkhu Bodhi & Allan R. Bomhard (2007). 《A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma》. Charleston Buddhist Fellowship. pp.100-101.
    Feeling is analyzed as fivefold: When feeling is analyzed by way of the governing faculty (indriya), it becomes fivefold. These five types of feelings are called faculties because they exercise lordship (indra), or control, over their associated states with respect to the affective mode of experiencing the object.
    When the fivefold analysis of feeling is considered, the pleasant feeling of the threefold scheme becomes divided into pleasure and joy, the former bodily and the latter mental; and neither-pleasant-nor-painful feeling becomes identified with equanimity, or neutral feeling.
    In the Suttas, the Buddha sometimes also speaks of feeling as twofold, pleasure (sukha) and pain (dukkha). This is a loose or metaphorical method of analysis, arrived at by merging the blameless neutral feeling in pleasure and the blameworthy neutral feeling in pain. The Buddha further declares that whatever is felt is included in suffering (yaṁ kiñci vedayitaṁ taṁ dukkhasmiṁ [cf. Saṁyutta Nikāya 36:11/iv, 216]). In this statement, the word dukkha does not bear the narrow meaning of “painful feeling,” but the broader meaning of “the suffering inherent in all conditional things (sabbe saṁkhārā) by reason of their impermanence (anicca).”
    Pleasure (sukha): Pleasure has the characteristic of experiencing a desirable tangible object, the function of intensifying associated states, and manifestation as bodily enjoyment. Its proximate cause is the body faculty.
    Pain (dukkha): Pain has the characteristic of experiencing an undesirable tangible object, the function of withering associated states, and manifestation as bodily affliction. Its proximate cause is also the body faculty.
    Joy (somanassa): Joy has the characteristic of experiencing a desirable object, the function of partaking of the desirable aspect of the object, and manifestation as mental enjoyment. Its proximate cause is tranquility.69
    Displeasure (domanassa): Displeasure has the characteristic of experiencing an undesirable object, the function of partaking of the undesirable aspect of the object, and manifestation as mental affliction. Its proximate cause is the heart-base.70
    Equanimity (upekkhā): Equanimity has the characteristic of being felt as neutral, the function of neither intensifying nor withering associated states, and manifestation as peacefulness. Its proximate cause is consciousness without zest.71
    69 Tranquility (passaddhi), it seems, is the proximate cause only for joyful feeling that arises in meditative development.
    70 On the heart-base, see below, §20.
    71 These definitions of the five feelings are found at Visuddhimagga XIV, 128.